Demystifying Medicine 2015

Topic Introductions


JANUARY 6 - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): From Causes to Treatment and Long-Term Outcome

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is the most commonly diagnosed disorder in children and adolescents. Controversey exists regarding diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. At what point does ADHD blend with "just" hyperactive kids...particularly when television, other media and overachieving parents push kids into paths which they may not seriously wish to enter? Is ADHD sometimes a disease of hyperactive parents? Is overachievement (perpetual quest for the A if not A plus grade in an AP course) a driver?

The marketing of medications fort ADHD is very profitable. How does this contribute to the public image of ADHD and decisions regarding therapy?

Has the genomic era helped to clarify this complex situation?

Wikipedia Description


JANUARY 13 - Dengue: "Breakbone Fever:" a Major "Unpublicized" Killer Disease

Dengue is a serious, increasing viral infection spreading throughout the world wherever its mosquito vector is found. , The Aedes mosquito transmits Dengue virus (one of four types) from one person to another, affects 400 million people annually and is leading cause of death and illness, mainly in tropics and subtropics. Dengue occurs in southern USA and is becoming an increasing problem. Infection results in high fever, severe head, muscle and bone pain ("Breakbone Fever"). Infection can be relatively mild or severe (Dengue hemorrhagic fever) which is often fatal. Progress has been made in creating an effective vaccine.

Presentation Introduction:
- Why do only Aedes (Greek: odious) transmit Dengue (and Yellow Fever)?
- Why only females transmit Dengue"
- How Account for (rare) disease in Asia, Arctic, suburbia?
- Why the spectrum of disease (asymptomic, flue-like, "breakbone" fever, fatal hemorrhagic)?
- Can a vaccine protect against all genotypes?
- Are antiviral drugs effective?
- Should millions of people at risk be vaccinated?

JANUARY 20 - New Advances in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment (Immunotoxins)

Presentation Introduction:
Advances in Cancer Therapy
- Genomics relating to susceptibility and targeted therapy
- Antibodies based on genomics
- Taming biologic toxins for therapy

What do they have in common? - Miners and drillman
- Offshore rust removals
- Manufactured asbestos products
- Vehicle repair
- Power plants
- Ship builders
- Railway workers
- Construction workers
- Maritime workers
- Oil refinery workers
- Abrasive manufacturers
- Steel mills

Cancer Chemotherapy - Three patients with similar histologic cancer:
- A responds dramatically to treatment AA
- B has no response to treatment AA
- B responds to treatment BB

JANUARY 27 - Ebola: A Terrifying Challenge

Wikipedia Description

Nonjournal Reading

Emerging "Rain Forest" Viruses...

Ebola and the Questions or Socrates


FEBRUARY 3 - Tuberculosis: Return of the "White Plague"

Tuberculosis remains one of the top ten killer diseases worldwide. This ancient microbe has persisted in periodic epidemics despite efforts at screening (X-rays, tuberculin test), treatment (streptomycin, isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH) and newer antibiotics) and improvement in public health. Why has this happened? what is the role of susceptibility (i.e. HIV, corticosteroids, immunosuppression), malnutrition, diabetes, alcoholism), drug resistance, socio-economic factors and genetics...among others?

Tuberculosis...the white plague "Consumption"

Wikipedia Description


FEBRUARY 10 - Ras: a Cancer Mechanism and Target

The Ras Challenge:


FEBRUARY 17 - CANCELED DUE TO WEATHER


FEBRUARY 24 - Marijuana: the Highs and Lows

Marijuana: UPS overpowering DOWNS?

What are the risks, if any, of marijuana?

Challenging Marijuana Myth. Message from the Director: Dr. Nora Volkow.


MARCH 3 - Malaria: Bioengineering and the Global Epidemic of a Killer


MARCH 10 - Mitochondria: Biology Meets Disease


MARCH 17 - Alcohol: How Does it Do the Things it Does?

Macbeth: Act 2, Scene 3

Drink sir, is a great provoker of three things...nose painting, sleep and urine. Lechery, sir, it provokes, and unprovokes; it provokes the desire but takes away the performance.

EXCESS: addiction, intoxication, withdrawal, brain damage, cirrhosis, malnutrition, anemia, infection, sterlity, etc...

MARCH 24 - Vision: Cerebral Pathways and Diseases

Vision is complex and, bedside the eye itself, involves amazing functional connections between different cerebral neurons. How an image is processed and integrated into what we eventually see (or think we see) has been the subject of several Nobel Prizes and modern imaging techniques have added to understanding the unique inputs of the brain to the final visual object. These advances have in part been derived from study of patients with different visual impairments...and experimental studies are defining precise mechanisms...thereby creating an excavating world of understanding and therapies involving many disciplines and techniques. The "cerebral" mechanisms permitting vision are one of the most exciting areas in modern translational and basic biologic studies: an ideal topic for Demystifying Medicine!.

MARCH 31 - Bladder Cancer: Chromosomes and a Major Disease


APRIL 7 - Infertility: an Increasing Problem Prompting Remarkable Advances



APRIL 14 - Sickle Cell Anemia: a Vicious Viscid Sickle Cycle


APRIL 21 - Glycoprotein Diseases: Important, Unrecognized and Challenging

Rare and Very Rare Diseases

"We try to help these patients with rare diseases...sometimes we are able to, and sometimes we're not...but these children are teaching us a lot we did not know about ourselves...and we can use what they are teaching us to help other people"...Sergio Rosenzweig 2014


APRIL 28 - The Future for Biomedical Scientists


 

This web page was last modified on April 26, 2015 . For questions about the course, please contact ariasi@mail.nih.gov.